Each Saturday, we devote ourselves to reading and discussing God is a Brown Girl Too on our “Self-Empowerment Call” from 9:30 AM to 10:30 AM, at 567-314-3648, Pass Code 48201.
One of the things that we often discuss is what we have to un-learn. The truth is that many of us have no idea why we believe what we do. We do not know the history of our indoctrination nor do we question it.
The following is the first of several excerpts from papers that I have written about theology which serve as the foundation for God is a Brown Girl Too. We were born as depraved sinners; we were taught to believe that we are powerless, even though Jesus Christ taught that the kingdom is in us; that the Holy Spirit is in us; that the Father is in us; and that He is in us.
The following is an excerpt from African American Spiritual Traditions,
which was written in May 2004. It discusses why some people fail to believe that the power of God is within them.
THE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN ANCIENT UNDERSTANDINGS OF THE ROLES OF JESUS CHRIST AND THE HOLY SPIRIT
Although the formal division of the Church into separate Eastern (Greece and the Near East) and Western (Western Europe) churches occurred in 1054 in the Great Schism between Rome and Constantinople, there had been a growing division in the way these two churches or theologies understood the role of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit for hundreds of years.
On the one hand, the East practiced the same theology that Christ gave to the Apostles and that the Apostles gave to the early church fathers. The East was also influenced by the Egyptian desert fathers, who practiced rigid asceticism to combat their physical passion in order to enhance their Oneness with God.
Western churches, on the other hand, were largely influenced by Augustine of Hippo, and to a lesser extent, Tertullian.
Augustine, who was born in Africa though said to be a Roman citizen, has been called one of the greatest theologians of Western Christianity. Their Fourth Century writings had little influence in the East, largely because they were written in Latin as opposed to Greek. (See Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, “Eastern Orthodoxy”, http://en.www.wikipedia.org )
Eastern theologians relied more on Greek philosophers, borrowing their language to explain Christian doctrine. Significant differences between Western and Eastern ancient understandings of the roles of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit are reflected in their understanding of (A) the “origin and procession of the Holy Spirit”, and (B) the “specific work of the Spirit in God’s plan of creation and salvation”.
- The Origin and Procession of the Holy Spirit
The early Christian Church was troubled by disagreement over the nature and relationship of the Trinity. The West saw the Holy Spirit as proceeding – and therefore originating — from both the Father and the Son, subordinate to neither. The East saw the Holy Spirit as proceeding or originating from the Father alone. According to the East, the Father alone brought forth the Holy Spirit; and the Son sent the Holy Spirit as the indwelling paraclete.
The Nicene Creed, established in 325 AD to conform Christian belief, is one of the key documents setting forth this fundamental difference in perception. It, in part, sets forth:
“We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father . . .”
The First Council of Constantinople adopted a revised version of the 325 AD creed in 381 AD, which was the last time that Catholic and Orthodox communions would agree on a Credo. The phrase “and the Son”, which is the filioque in Latin, was added to the Nicene Creed at Synod of Toledo in Spain in 447 AD, so that it read the Holy Spirit “who proceeds from the Father and the Son.”
Augustine of Hippo wrote that “the Holy Spirit is neither of the Father alone nor the Son but of both” – stressing their “unity.” His view was if Spirit proceeded from both the Father and the Son, then the work of the Holy Spirit collapsed into that of the Son.
But in John 15:26 (“when the Helper comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify of Me”), Jesus Christ tells us that the Spirit proceeds from the Father – a scripture that the East constantly adduce in their criticism of the filioque clause of the West.
The East follows the Johnanine doctrine closely, which distinguishes between the generation of the son (John 1:14 — and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth; John 3:16 —for God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son; and Luke 3:22 — and the Holy Spirit descended in bodily form like a dove upon Him, and a voice came from Heaven which said “You are my Beloved Son; in You I am well pleased” ) and the procession of the Spirit.
“Athanasius and the Cappadocians [Gregory of Nyssa, his older brother St. Basil or Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nazianzus] emphasized the participation of all three hypostases in all divine activity as a consequence and condition of their unity of essence.” Systematic Theology, at 271 (citations omitted). The Apostle John saw the Holy Spirit as the “other advocate” or paraclete who the Father will send in the name of Jesus or whom Jesus will send after exaltation by the Father (John 16:7 – “if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I depart, I will send Him to you”).
Consistent with John, the Eastern view was that the Holy Spirit issued from God the Father, through Jesus the Christ, so that God-Jesus Christ-Holy Spirit are viewed as three divine and unique hypostases. The Spirit proceeded from the Father through the Son and was perfected in the Holy Spirit. Gregory of Nyssa, the younger brother of St. Basil, explained this procession as “three torches burning”, with each transmitting fire to the next; the Son being used as an instrument of the Father. St. Basil believed God created through the Son and perfected through the Holy Spirit.
2. The Specific Work of the Spirit in Creation and Salvation
The “original sin” was allegedly inherited at the creation of humanity from the Fall of Adam and Eve. The West believes that after the Fall, humanity needed a savior to restore their right relationship with God. Thus, Jesus Christ is the savior to restore humanity from sin. The East, however, believe that the “original sin” was not inherited but salvation is an ongoing process of improvement and healing for humanity as a whole, all of which has been damaged or “tainted” by the Fall.
Under early Western theological thought, the only way for a wretched and depraved humanity to receive the salvation of the Holy Spirit from the sin that was its so-called birth right was through the church. To the West, only the church and the Bishop had the ability to dispense the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Ignatius, the Bishop of Antioch even wrote in one of his famous letters that “You should all follow the Bishop as Jesus did the Father.” There was no individual anointing by the Holy Spirit as that could lead to heresy and confusion. The West wanted full control; so there was only the anointing of the church. In other words, to get the Holy Ghost, you had to go to church. To speak in tongues, you had to go to church. To receive the gift of prophecy, you had to be in church.
Eastern theologians, however, viewed spirituality as an individual experience. This was likely inspired by the Egyptian desert fathers’ practice of rigid asceticism and control over themselves as individuals. For example, Gregory of Nazianzen, one of the Cappadocian Fathers, was concerned that the Holy Spirit not be suppressed. Similarly, Gregory of Nyssa believed that our experience of the Holy Spirit is based, in part, on our Free Will to move from “Glory to Glory” and that the Kingdom of God is within us. Macarius said that no part of the soul is covered with darkness; all of the soul is covered in spiritual light.
In the East, Gregory, Chrysostom and Macarius espoused the general view that we were made in the image of God. The so-called original sin was just a taint. Moreover, it was the result of humanity’s ability to exercise its God-given free will. Chrysostom believed that evil was not a part of human nature, even though we may have a tendency to exercise our will to do what appears pleasurable but may be evil. Despite the fact that the Fall tarnished the image of God (a result of “moral negligence”), God’s purpose is to restore humans to their original pristine perfection. Athanasius described this concept of theosis: “The Son of God became man that we night become God.”
John Wesley said that “no man sins because he has not grace, but because he does not use the grace which he hath.” Spirit — under this Eastern perspective — could not be confined to the church. This is consistent with the way Spirit moved in the lives of the nineteenth century African American women. The church was not receptive to them, but they still received the glory of God, the salvation of Jesus Christ, and the gifts of the Holy Spirit.
Sin was always projected on to brown skinned women everywhere; they were condemned, ridiculed, raped, oppressed, ostracized, sexually exploited, physically abused, mentally tortured – and needed to understand the Truth, that they are glorious, beloved, sacred daughters of God, blessed by Her Love and Her Grace. As Sojourner Truth said, God is an ocean of Love and we move in Him like Fish in the Sea.
The Western perception of the Holy Spirit produced a negative anthropological stance. If everyone was a depraved sinner, tarnished forever from the fall of Adam and Eve, then the black woman, one of the most despised creatures – by white men, white women and black men worldwide – would be at the very bottom of depravity and sin. The irony of this is that Eve, the oldest bones found in Africa, said to be the mother of all civilization had to be black. According to the Discovery Channel’s documentary on Eve, all people were born from her; their pigmentation changed over time. Nevertheless, under the Western Church rigid view of sin, Eve and her children can never be fully saved from their sins, except through Jesus for which there is no perfect salvation.
Those who attend church based on the Western school of thought, perceive themselves as sinners, who can never be saved. They call on Jesus as their Savior, but look to the hereafter as the only way to experience true happiness.
The East has a more positive anthropological stance. If the Fall is perceived as merely a taint or “moral negligence”, a sin for which we were acquitted when Jesus the Christ died upon the cross and was resurrected, we can redeem ourselves with the aid of the Holy Spirit, by baptism and rebirth, by the teachings of Jesus the Christ, and by the grace of God Our Father.
In John 14:12, Jesus said “He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do.” If we believe that we can attain the stature of the Christ, we can do so without the church, without the bishop, without the pastor, or the preacher, or the congregation of so-called saints. Jesus Christ taught at the temple, but he did not worship at church.
Jesus said, in John 10:34-35, “it is not written in your law, I said, ye are Gods.”
Paul said “Know ye not that ye are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you.”
A more positive theology opens up the depraved sinner’s consciousness to the realization that she is not depraved, nor a sinner, nor worthless – but the worthy mother of civilization and co-creator of all things.
She has a specific work to do to restore humanity’s divine image; she is capable of unfolding her perfection; salvation is hers.
(Part 2 will be added next week. References are below. )
 These anchorites or hermits sometimes led a life of prayer deep in the desert, spending time in prayer and meditation while denying themselves of food and sleep (e.g., Anthony, eating a few crumbs every second day, while walled up in a fort; he received visitations from angels, demons, wild animals, and other apparitions). Dorotheus lived 6o years in a cave, sleeping while sitting up. Macarius stood upright through the entire period of Lent. Syrian ascetics were known to place themselves in holes; one slept in a hollowed-out log full of thorns and stones. Some took off all of their clothes and grazed on herbs and grass like animals. The Syrian stylites spent their lives praying at the top of tall stone pillars (e.g., Simeon lived 40 years atop a 50 foot stone pillar). Not all anchorites were men; many were women! (Lange, Stuart, “Searching for Intimacy with the Desert Fathers”, Reality Magazine, Issue 40.)
 All branches of Eastern Orthodoxy trace a continuous apostolic succession back to the five early centers of Christianity: Rome, Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople. The Western tradition is largely seen as Catholicism and Protestantism (e.g., the Roman Catholic Church).
 Quotes without citations are taken from Dr. Anne Rebecca Elliott’s dissertation, African American Women’s Understanding off the Spirit: Ancient Eastern Pneumatological Influences (1998).
 The dispute over the filioque clause and the manner of its adoption helped lead to the great schism 600 years later.
 The “result”, however is “not in keeping with the witness of the scripture.” Wolfhart Pannenberg, Systematic Theology (1991), at 317. In fact, Western theology is now reaching a consensus that the filioque is “uncanonical” and the “Augustinian doctrine of the procession of the Spirit from the Father is an inappropriate formulation.” Id. at 318 and n. 181.